On 3 March 2015, Future Cities project launched the Future Cities Salon with a series of debates examining the future of public space.
The next debate takes place at the Building Centre in London on 11 June 2015.
Crisis is the New Normal
What is a Resilient City?
From pollution, rising sea-levels, crime, terrorism or simply ill-health and disease, it seems that when we talk about cities, it’s de rigeur to claim that “crisis is the new normal”. Judith Rodin’s latest book “The Resilience Dividend” claims that “we are at greater risk than ever from city-wide catastrophe, and as the severity and frequency of these disasters increase, we must become better at preparing for, responding to and recovering from them.” Global engineering firm Arup are keen to join in the paranoia: “Those who run the world’s major cities are becoming increasingly aware that they are unable to cope with a number of global or regional scale threats: climate change, pandemics, water shortages, terrorist activity, collapsing fish stocks, to name but a few”.
What happened to change our perception of urbanization from a positive to a negative one? Not too long ago, cities were seen as a progressive social organisation, whereas now – through the prism of resilience – we seem to be interpreting cities in potentially terrifying terms? The post-war vision of town-planning: to create a better quality of life through development is much ridiculed these days. Nowadays, we seem to have become infatuated by the perceived failures (or possible scenarios of failures in the future) rather than the successes of cities? Architects talk of “future-proofing” while engineers “disaster-proof”; each for the avoidance of unspecified hazards that may or may not be around the corner.
Buildings in earthquake zones should obviously have higher engineering requirements, but should we design everyday buildings with disaster in mind? Are cities under such threat that precaution should be our watchword? Across the globe, we are living longer and healthier lives. While some people argue that pace of urban life is destroying the quality of life – the fact that the global population is now more than 50 per cent urban tends to undermine that viewpoint. Rural populations want the benefits that urbanism brings.
This debate asks whether resilience is a euphemism for human ingenuity and fortitude; or it implies that we should keep our heads down. Is it a belief that we should control events or that we should accommodate to forces beyond our control? In cities, should we build better drainage infrastructure to remove flooding, or should we live on stilts to live with flood water? Should we design blast-proof windows and walls to protect ourselves against terrorist attack, or satisfy ourselves that terrorism remains a remote possibility? Should we enjoy a socialised urban existence, or should we adopt a survivalist mentality?
What kind of mind-set does the infatuation with resilience generate? What kind of city does fear of the future create?
Venue: The Building Centre, 26 Store Street, London WC1E 7BT
Date: 7pm, Thursday 11 June 2015
Tickets: £5 / £3 (students/concession)
Irena Bauman, professor of Sustainable Urbanism at Sheffield University; co-founder of Bauman Lyons Architects
Robin Nicholson CBE, senior partner, Cullinan Studio ; NHBC Foundation Expert Panel
Austin Williams, associate professor of Architecture, XJTLU university, China; author, “The Lure of the City: From Slums to Suburbs”
Chair: Martyn Perks, Co-author, Big Potatoes: London Manifesto for Innovation; writer on technology, design and urbanism
Nicholas Reilly, “Stoke-on-Trent is the UK’s first ‘disaster resilient’ city”, Metro.co.ukSunday 28 Dec 2014
Robin Nicholson, “Building a resilient future”, BD, 10 March 2014
Tom Slater, “The resilience of Neoliberal Urbanism” , Open Security, 28 January 2014
Bruce Watson, “What makes a City Resilient?”, The Guardian, 27 January 2014
Jon Coaffee et al (2008). “The Everyday Resilience of the City: How Cities Respond to Terrorism and Disaster”, Palgrave MacMillan. (preview version only, pdf)
Jo da Silva, Braulio Morera, (2014).“City Resilience Framework”, OveArup & Partners International Limited. (download pdf_9.51Mb)
Lack of Ideas Stores:
Public libraries in the era of private Kindles
In a world of Kindles and free downloads, do we really need physical places to house books? Last November, children’s favourite Terry Deary controversially demurred from the consensus that public libraries are necessarily a Good Thing, arguing this ‘Victorian idea’ has to evolve, and that giving out e-readers would be cheaper than keeping libraries open. He was roundly denounced by fellow authors who described his views as ‘downright irresponsible’ and ‘ignorant twaddle’. Ironically, though, Deary’s belief that libraries must become part of the electronic age seems to be shared by many librarians. Only a small percentage of their funds is spent on books; the majority is spent on computers, DVDs, computers and e-readers.
Other changes beyond technology also seem to be chipping away at the core purpose of libraries. When Malala opened Meccanoo’s new Birmingham library in 2013, she declared: ‘Aristotle’s words are still breathing, Rumi’s poetry will always inspire and Shakespeare’s soul will never die.’ And yet even here, books are only one aspect of the new library’s purpose. One leaflet tells young people, ‘relax and read or chat with friends in the Chill Out Lounge’, while others advertise art and performance events, health and well-being projects, a recording studio, music rehearsal rooms and help with job hunting. Whitechapel’s Ideas Store celebrates its “space for teaching dance” while proudly boasting that it still has “a large collection of books”. This conversion of every local library into a municipal ‘one-stop shop’ has been labelled ‘community centres with books’ by Jeanette Winterson.
Perhaps there is nothing intrinsically wrong with using the public library to offer other services, from careers advice to a café. But some see a defensive desire to get more people through the door as undermining libraries’ core function: promoting literature and making available out-of-print, classic and quality contemporary material. And without such a distinct role, how can libraries be defended in an era of public funding cuts? As Newcastle City Council explained when announcing over £7million of cuts to the local authority’s library services: ‘Faced with agonising decisions about child protection, care for the elderly and emptying bins, where do libraries, leisure centres and culture rank? I think we all know the answer.’ While howls of outrage greet such pronouncements, can we confidently defend libraries without a clear sense of what they are for?
Venue: The Building Centre, 26 Store Street, London WC1E 7BT
Date: TBA, 2015
De-Sanitizing The City:
What is public space?
A dream-team of Thomas Heatherwick and Joanna Lumley has proposed a new bridge over the Thames that seems to have ticked all the right-on boxes: it is solely for pedestrian access, it has impeccable environmental credentials and it creates a new park for London. But protests have erupted over the fact that it is only notionally “public”. The bridge will host corporate events and will close early on weekdays. It will be what The Guardian describes as “a privately managed tourist attraction”.
Meanwhile, renewed attention has focused on the “Sky Garden” at Raphael Vinoly’s 20 Fenchurch Street’s – a public park located 35-storeys in the air. Architecture critic Rowan Moore bemoans that it cannot be “public when you have to go through airport-style security and book at least three days in advance”. The Daily Mail also criticised the “’public’ aspect of the space, after it emerged that only paying customers would be allowed up to the garden after 6pm”.
Undoubtedly much public space is privatized; from the London Eye to the Westfield Shopping Centre, so why has the right to public access become such a fashionable concern today?
It has long been a worry that public shopping streets have been turned into private malls; that ramblers are regularly stopped from walking on public footpaths or that unaccountable private security guards can demand on-the-spot fines from members of the public. For some commentators, gated communities have long symbolized the growth of two-tier urban space in the same way that “anti-homeless” spikes in the lobby of a London apartment block were recently condemned as an assault on the poor who choose to sleep rough. So is the collective commons really fragmenting into elite urban squares on one hand, and left-over space for the disenfranchised on the other?
This kind of iniquitous segmentation of the erstwhile “public realm”, which has long been a source of irritation to interest groups, is now being questioned by mainstream commentators. Emboldened by the Occupy movements’ battles over public space in favour of the disenfranchised, author Douglas Murphy says that public space “gets ever more murkily private; we need to redress the balance of who owns what”. Green Party activist Matt Hawkins claims that the object of good public space is the ability to help “the people that live there to feel happy, secure, and fulfilled” and Russell Brand claims to “work for the common good”. Defending “the public square” seems to be fashionable.
Author Anna Minton’s latest essay on the Creative Commons advocates for the “public good” – the reinvention of the common interest and the end to “enclaves of deprivation”. In place of the standard business case for development and the economic cost-benefit analysis for the provision infrastructure, she suggests that the benchmark “needs to be changed to emphasise the social value and social consequences of schemes for communities”? It sounds good, but who determines what these values are? Is common consent the same as democratic legitimacy?
This debate will assess whether public space refers to places where we have the right to do anything we want, and whether common access = good public space? But we will also focus on whether we can reinvent an egalitarian city through rethinking civil engagement in the public arena.
Venue: The Building Centre, 26 Store Street, London WC1E 7BT
Date: 7pm, Tuesday, 3 March 2015
Anna Minton, author, “Ground Control“; visiting professor, University of East London
Deborah Saunt, Founder, award-winning architectural studio, DSDHA
Jack Self, Reviews Editor, Architectural Review
Claire Mookerjee, Project Manager, Future Cities Catapult; previously Design Researcher, Gehl Architects
Alastair Donald, British Council Project Director, British Pavilion, Venice Architecture Biennale
Chair: Michael Owens, Commercial Director, Bow Arts Trust; owner of London Urban Visits
Jeremy Németh “Controlling the Commons: How Public Is Public Space?” (2012)
Anna Minton, “The privatisation of public space” pdf (2007)
John Parkinson, “Democracy and Public Space: The Physical Sites of Democratic Performance”pdf (2012)
Who is public space for, and why?
Early 20th century Modernism sought to provide public open space within cities as a release from the confines of overcrowded, unsanitary slums. Nowadays, public space is everywhere but there is less recognition and more proscription about what and who it is for. Cardiff’s Central Square, for example, simply proposes to “give a positive impression to people visiting the capital”. Back in 2003, The Urban Task Force argued that “some urban areas have too much public space, much of which is poorly designed, managed and maintained. Many 20th-century residential developments have a public realm which is simply ‘SLOAP’ (Space left over after planning).”
This debate seeks to find out what is the high ambition for public space provision today. And who comprises “the public” that designers and politicians constantly invoke?
Even if we don’t know who it is for, or what it is, “public space” is often seen as an unqualified “good” – as a designated Big Society space where people can come together as a public. Many see public space as a way to influence social behaviour: to make a city more secure or to build community engagement? Often these places are seen as “catalysts” for something unspecified. A recent Joseph Rowntree report states that it is somewhere “to allow people to ‘do nothing’”, while others see public space as a technical exercise to provide some kind of open space that will help to gain planning permission.
While Granary Square in Kings Cross has generated some liveliness around its restaurants and water-features, there are many more designated public areas – designed specifically with the desire to encourage public engagement – in which the public are noticeably absent. Trafalgar Square is a tourist trap rather than a public square, Heatherwick’s Blue Carpet in Newcastle remains empty and grim; and the Project for Public Places notes that Tate Modern’s plaza “is a study in aggravating design”. Lots of so-called public space lie barren and unloved. Other public squares are only lively because orchestrated events artificially make sure that they are. Birmingham City Library’s public square is being “revamped” to provide space for “events and happenings on the square”. But for whom? Why?
Hannah Arendt says the public space is where people act rather than work, “it is a space where political action takes place urged by freedom and the need for self-realization of the individual”. But if public space is what we make it, then do we need to consciously provide so much of it?
Finn Williams, founder, Common Office; GLA Regeneration Area Manager, North-West & Central London
Dolan Cummings, co-founder Manifesto Club; editor, “Debating Humanism”
Kathryn Firth, director of development/urban design and masterplanning, Publica
Phineas Harper, deputy director, Architecture Foundation; former deputy editor, The Architectural Review
Chair: Alastair Donald, convenor, Future Cities Salon
Venue: The Building Centre, 26 Store Street, London WC1E 7BT
Date: 7pm, Wednesday 29 April 2015
Greg Scruggs, “How Much Public Space Does a City Need?“, Next City, 7 January 2015
Josie Appleton, “The end of public space: one law to ban them all“, 20 January 2014, Our Kingdom
Ken Worpole, Katharine Knox, ”The Social Value of Public Space“, Joseph Rowntree Foundation, 2007
China Commentary, “The Social Life of Chinese Small Urban Spaces“, 2014
Herbert Muschamp, “Public Space or Private, a Compulsion to Fill It“, New York Times, 27 August 2000
Mark Francis, “Control as a Dimension of Public-Space Quality” in Irwin Altman & Ervin Zube, “Public Places and Spaces”, Plenum Press, 1989
Friday 26 September, 18.30 until 20.30, Barbican Centre, Silk Street, London EC2Y 8DS
Do the rise of mega-cities represent a symbol of hope and opportunity for billions around the world, or a grim vision of a congested and fragmented urban dystopia? Does rapid urbanisation inevitably mean a Dickensian future or can innovation provide radical solutions to the problems of development? Can the city maintain its lure in the twenty-first century? SPEAKERS: Leo Hollis (Author, Cities Are Good For You), Alastair Donald (associate director, Future Cities Project); Christian Wolmar (writer, broadcaster). Chair: David Bowden (co-ordinator, UK Battle Satellites)
This was a BATTLE OF IDEAS 2014 Satellie Event, and part of the Barbican’s City Visions series of films, talks and debates
Battle of Ideas 2014
Saturday 18 & Sunday 19 October, 2014, Barbican Centre, Silk Street, London EC2Y 8DS
This session asks whether today’s smart cities follow in the footsteps of these historical radical city visions or whether they lack both radicalism and vision. Do smart cities represent the real or the virtual, the global or the local, the urbane or the mundane? SPEAKERS: Alastair Donald (associate director, Future Cities Project); Tia Kansara (founder & director, Kansara Hackney Ltd); Dr Paul Zanelli (chief technical officer, Transport Systems Catapult); Lean Doody (Arup). Chair: Austin Williams (associate professor, Xi’an Jiaotong-Liverpool University)
Can innovative new technologies allow us to have it all – cheap, fast, low-carbon, speedy, convenient travel for everyone? Or is the novelty of travel simply wearing off; have we fallen out of love with the daily commute, the railway buffet car or the crowded departure lounge? SPEAKERS: Kevin McCullagh (founder, Plan); Peter Stevens ((designer, McLaren F1 road car, 1999 Le Mans-winning BMW, Lotus Elan, Jaguar’s XJR-15); Graham Stringer, (Labour MP for Blackley and Broughton. Chair: Austin Williams (associate professor, Xi’an Jiaotong-Liverpool University)
A few years ago, Ruth Reed, the then president of the RIBA, claimed that ‘good architecture has its price but bad architecture – or no architecture at all – will cost you more’. But in the midst of a global economic recession, is architecture – good or bad – really necessary? This debate will ask the panel to try to answer these questions and to give its considered opinion about what constitutes ‘good’ architecture, yesterday, today and forever. SPEAKERS: Rachel Armstrong (professor of experimental architecture, University of Newcastle); Fred Manson (associate director, Heatherwick studio); Dr Patrik Schumacher (partner, Zaha Hadid Architects). Chair: Austin Williams (associate professor, Xi’an Jiaotong-Liverpool University)
14 November 2012
The triumph of the city?
7 – 9pm, at Q 110 – Die Deutsche Bank der Zukunft in Berlin, Friedrichstraße 181, 10117
‘Cities are the greatest creations of humanity’ argues architect Daniel Libeskind. However, according to Stefan Heyd, former Chair of the Board of Management, Münchener Rück, ‘Megacities create risks of new dimensions – megarisks’
So will the 21st century go down in history as the century when the city triumphed? The United Nations has heralded cities as ‘dynamic centres of creativity and culture’ while Harvard academic Edward Glaeser claims they will make us ‘richer, smarter, greener, healthier and happier’. Nevertheless, in the west we often seem unconvinced by such claims. At a time when many believe that ‘small is beautiful’ and call for ‘sustainable’ and ‘appropriate’ growth, megacities and other emerging centres of the east and south are often viewed with apprehension. So do cities and urban development strengthen or weaken our societies? As cities develop, is social exclusion also likely to grow? On the other hand, if cities are the dynamic centres of innovation that many claim them to be, then why are we not building more of them? What role might modern architecture and technology play in the development of the city of the future?
In conjunction with: Novo Argumente +49 699 7206 701 or email email@example.com.
21 October 2012
The ‘Urban Living’ debates
Battle of Ideas 2012, 20/21st October
Venue: The Barbican, London
Is London just too big for its boots or is it good for us all to have a city with such global reach as our capital? Should we build it higher? Extend it to the green belt? Preserve it the way it is? Lighten the burden of planning regulation? Let developers have their way?
The Future Cities project is a partner of the Institute of Ideas for Battle of Ideas 2012, supporting six important debates about the present and the future of city life.
STRAND CONVENOR: Alastair Donald. Associate Director, Future Cities Project.
8.00am to 9.00am: Battle of Ideas Urban Jog
Urban Jogs arrives at the Barbican and the Battle of Ideas! Come and join a jog tour of the Barbican’s urban hinterland combined with the story of the Barbican’s development. with runner and personal trainer Ade Aboaba and urbanist Michael Owens.
9.30am to 10.15am: Everyone a runner?
When Mo Farah won his gold medals at the Olympics he became a national hero, but will his triumph inspire Britain’s amateur runners to raise their game? No city is complete without a long-distance event, but most pavement-pounders seem focused on individual achievements, with little concern for winning races or medals. Does the non- competitive character of most of today’s runners make modern running a hobby rather than a proper sport?
Speakers: Professor Richard Bailey international authority on role of sport, research consultant for Nike Inc; Dan Travis director, Brighton Salon; tennis coach; author In Defence of Competitive Sport; Alexandra Heminsley books editor, Elle UK magazine; author, Running Like a Girl (forthcoming); Chair: Hilary Salt founder, First Actuarial plc.
10.30am to 12.00pm: Urban Hubris and The Great Inequality Debate
London’s Shard, the tallest building in the European Union, has been condemned as embodying the ‘obscene wealth’ of the City of London. So should the City be dethroned in favour of more even development of our urban areas, or is it the guarantor of development in the regions? Does London risk becoming better known as a sterile business hub rather than a vibrant, cosmopolitan city? Does it matter if tall buildings symbolise disparities of wealth, or does development benefit all of us?
Speakers: Sunder Katwala director, British Future; former general secretary, Fabian Society; Rob Killick co-founder and CEO, cScape; Anna Minton writer and journalist; author, Ground Control: fear and happiness in the 21st century city; Martin Earnshaw co-editor Future of Community; chair, IoI Social Policy Forum. Chair: Alastair Donald urban designer; researcher; co-editor The Lure of the city: from slums to suburbs
12.15pm to 1.15pm: From the Colosseum to Wembley: crowd watching through the ages
The behaviour of crowds has often been a matter of moral and political concern. Some look at modern football crowds exchanging foul-mouthed banter with the same disdain as we might regard the bloodthirsty crowds cheering on the gladiators in Ancient Rome. But are the seething multitudes really such a problem? Surely lively, sometimes raucous gatherings in public spaces are a sign of a healthy and vibrant social life. Do we need stricter regulation of how people behave in large groups, or should crowds be left to police themselves?
Speakers: Dr Shirley Dent head of communications, PhonepayPlus; co-author, Radical Blake; Dr John Drury senior lecturer, social psychology, University of Sussex; co-editor, Crowds in the 21st century: perspectives from contemporary social science (forthcoming); Kevin Rooney head of social science, Queens’ School, Bushey; founder, Fans for Freedom. Chair: Geoff Kidder director, membership and events, Institute of Ideas; convenor, IoI Book Club
3.15pm to 4.45pm: To build or not to build?
From Boris Island to the Dale Farm gypsies, no project seems too big or small to fall foul of the UK’s notoriously stringent planning laws. The government recently announced its intention to liberalise these rules to promote new builds, but is there sufficient political will? By some estimates, five million people are waiting on housing registers, but rather than building new homes, many professionals favour forcing landlords to sell empty properties, banning second homes or even curbing population growth. What are the smart ways to deliver good urban development? Is the solution better top-down planning, more bottom-up planning, or what?
Speakers: Professor Kelvin Campbell Urban Initiatives; author, Massive Small: the operating system for smart urbanism; Christine Murray editor, The Architects’ Journal; Daniel Moylan chairman, London Legacy Development Corporation, Conservative councillor; Penny Lewis Scott Sutherland School of Architecture; co-founder, AE Foundation; Chair: Michael Owens director, Global Cities; member, editorial board, Local Economy
5.00pm to 6.15pm: Preservation or modernisation?
Traditionally, the preservation of buildings reflected a judgement that they were of architectural, historic or cultural value. In recent years, there has been a parallel trend: reflecting a fear that globalisation is undermining our sense of place, many European cities are celebrating ‘urban memory’ as an end in itself. Where once architects and urbanists relished erasing the past to create the future, now the past is romanticised. For example, critics of Clone Towns yearn for the independent shops and boutiques of old. Why has urban memory become such a big deal, and who should decide what is worth keeping?
Speakers: Dr Tim Edensor reader in cultural geography, Manchester Metropolitan University; Jeremy Musson writer, historic buildings consultant; former architectural editor, Country Life; Luis T. Pereira founding partner, [A] ainda arquitectura architecture studio, Porto; Alastair Donald urban designer; researcher; co-editor The Lure of the city: from slums to suburbs. Chair: Dr Tiffany Jenkins sociologist and cultural commentator; arts and society director, Institute of Ideas
6.30pm to 7.30pm: Looking back today
The term ‘the Sixties and Seventies’ conjures a wealth of defining images: from iconic portraits of Bob Dylan, Martin Luther King and Che Guevara through to devastating images of the horrors of Vietnam and Cambodia. As the current Barbican exhibition Everything Was Moving shows, a new generation of photographers documenting a changing world were ‘driven to understand that world, as well as their place in it’. Does our fascination with the golden age of the Sixties and Seventies reveal a desire to capture some of the period’s radical spirit, or more of a conservative retreat into nostalgia?
Speakers: Sarah E James lecturer, history of art, University College London; author, Common Ground: photography in Germany during the Cold War (forthcoming); Stephen Bull artist; author, Photography; lecturer, University for the Creative Arts, Farnham; Pauline Hadaway director, Belfast Exposed, gallery of contemporary photography. Chair: Dr Tiffany Jenkins sociologist and cultural commentator; arts and society director, Institute of Ideas.
For full details of all debates and speakers, see Urban Strand at Battle of Ideas
26 October 2012
Bookshop Barnie at the Battle of Ideas
Martin Jacques on ‘When China Rules the World: The End of the Western World and the Birth of a New Global Order’ (Penguin Books)
Martin Jacques, visiting professor at Tsinghua University in Beijing suggests that this is China’s century. Indeed, its economic performance seems to vindicate his analysis. But then again, between 1960 and 1972, the Greek economy grew at 8% p.a. (more than China’s projections for 2011-2015). Come and argue about the hype and the reality.
This is event is free. To reserve a place email us at firstname.lastname@example.org
18-19 October 2012
Masterplanning the Future
Venue: Suzhou, China
This two-day international conference in Architecture & Urban Design will be held at XJTLU, Suzhou and combines a public forum and academic conference to explore the lessons and ambitions of new and existing cities in the West and East and across the world.
An Open Forum, a major international debate to discuss the state of cities, from the West to the East, will consist of chaired panel debates and presentations led by architects, designers and commentators (including geographers, engineers, urban designers, as well as cultural commentators and leading figures representing a mix of local, national and global interests). An Academic Conference Strand ‘Modernism in Architecture and Urbanism’ draws together leading voices in academia to examine more specific aspects of cross-boundary urban design, theory, practice and history.
For further information contact Austin Williams
City2.0: Forging a new urban outlook
‘Open source cities’; ‘smart cities’; ‘intelligent cities’. The choice of prefix may change, but enthusiasts seem increasingly convinced that digital technologies are transforming not only the nature of communication, but also the way we design, build, use, and interact within cities. On awarding the TED 2012 prize to The City 2.0, the organisers disputed the idea that this city of the future was a ‘sterile utopian dream’. Rather, they argued, we are seeing a real-world upgrade, tapping into humanity’s collective wisdom to create places of ‘beauty, wonder, excitement, inclusion, diversity, life.’
This discussion explores the ideas and the reality of City 2.0. Can new technologies revive sociability and civic engagement and help create ‘networked publics’ organised around collective goals or issues? Will innovations lead us away from top-down or bottom-up and to a new, more democratic form of peer to peer interaction? Cities have often been celebrated for their anonymity and the ability to bring together strangers. Do social media merely relocate these opportunities to cyberspace – or is crowdsourcing a less than adequate replacement for crowds? How should we view the prospect of City 2.0?
Alastair Donald, Associate Director, Future Cities Project
Mindy Gofton, Head of Search I-COM
Martin Bryant, Managing Editor at The Next Web,
Lisa Raynes, Managing Director of Raynes Architecture
Simon Belt, Manchester Salon (Chair)
Hosted by Manchester Craft & Design Centre